A. Background of the Study
Language teaching is a complex activity, and that this complexity derives primarily from the diversity of perceptions and the goals of the various participants who play a role in the teaching learning process (Tudor, 2001:43). Indeed, if all participants have the same perceptions about the nature and the goal of language teaching, teaching would be much clearer and easier to be undertaken than it generally is. By so doing, there would be no gap between the teacher and students. Thus, language teaching can be understood in term of interactions of different rationalities of the teacher and students rather than enactment of a single rationality.
In the classroom, the place where the teaching-learning process is undertaken, there are a variety of different potential perspectives of the nature and the goals of language teaching meet and interact. Hence, it can be an important factor to reach the goal of the instruction (Tudor, 2001:47). Besides, Val Lier also stated that there are greater attentions in educational teaching that language learners should have effective involvement to practice their communicative skill because language is a means of communication and self-expression. That is a medium by which members of a speech community express concepts, perceptions, expectations, and values which have significance to them as members of a speech community. In other word, classroom can be a place where students can express their personal problems and concerns. Within this perception, the classroom is conceptualized to create a condition where students can improve their ability in learning English that is for using the English for the real communication. And even, classroom itself is a part of the real world of students as individuals and social actors. Then, communication is not just something that happens "out there" but also process which occurs in the social environment, which we call the classroom (p. 115).
In adition, William Littlewood (1981: 93) also states that:
"The development of communicative skills can only take place if learners have motivation and opportunity to express their own identity and to relate with the people around them. It therefore,+ requires a learning atmosphere which gives them a sense of security and valves as individuals. In turn, this atmosphere depends to a large extent on the existence of interpersonal relation slips which do not create inhibition, but are supportive and accepting".
With these visions of the classroom, there should be an effective interaction between teacher and students, and among students themselves in improving their knowledge and skills for the use at some stage in the future. Coleman (1996:88) also states that language teaching needs improvement of using English as the target language. Therefore, the successful realization of the language for communication depends on the genuine students' involvement in the relevant teaching learning activity.
For achieving the visions as the writer states above, good atmosphere of teaching-learning process is very required, especially in the English classroom where the dynamic interaction of teacher and students in the class is implemented, where the network of shared meaningfulness, which binds together in the mind of teacher and students emerges (Tudor, 2001: 45).
In the large class, however, where the number of students and a range of factors such as the rapport of the classroom's participants, physical condition and seating become a problem, to get dynamic conditions of teaching-learning process is far from the ideal. Therefore, it is a big challenge to organize the classroom in order to create an effective language classroom interaction for the teaching-learning process.
Wagner (p.234), then also says "I should get every learner to talk much more, but that is impossible with 30 learners in my class". Therefore, for creating an interactive learning process between teacher and her/his students, innovations in teaching English are very much needed.
In such classes too, it will be unrealistic to expect more than a blackboard and a supply of chalk. The rows of heavy desk would be a constraint on group work, and coping with the noise, persuading the class to use English, managing the introduction and setting up of activities, making limited resources go a long way, and monitoring the work of individual within the class will also be management problems (David Cross, 1995:5).
Hence, the writer tends to know whether there is a dynamic process of teaching and learning in the classroom or not. Thus, as a place of communication, language classroom should become a place which would allow all students to practice the communicative skills that they would need to use in the real interactive situations outside the classroom. Besides, the real students' involvement in the relevant learning activities / the assumptions that students should be more active and participatory is the parameter of successful realization of an experiential approach to language learning. Therefore, it becomes a big attention to the writer (Tudor, 2001: 113).
To the classroom, students will come with certain expectations as to what a good classroom should be, and of the role the teacher plays within it. They also expect the teacher to have something solid to offer them the terms of professional knowledge and experience of language learning options (p. 110). Here, the teacher does play an important role. A good teacher therefore, is one who can breathe life into methodological procedures in pursuit of the learning objectives set out in the curriculum. Whereas the student role is defined as the nature of students' participation in the classroom: their participation is therefore channeled through the assumptions about the nature of language and of language learning found in the methodological being used (p. 106). In addition, the relationship between the teacher and the students also becomes the light for the writer to conduct the research.
In order to know more about classroom interaction of English teaching-learning process in the large classes, a descriptive method is suitable to be conducted because it looks deep at the relationship between teacher and students in the form of classroom interaction, that is when the teacher asks question, give explanation, feedback, error treatment and when the students listen to the teacher's instruction and explanations, when they express their views, answer questions and carry out the tasks and activities, etc. Besides that, it is also aimed to know the opportunities of the students' involvement for practicing their knowledge and skills in the teaching-learning process, the role of the teacher and the students in the classroom, and also to know the effectiveness of English teaching-learning process. In addition, its qualitative, interpretive nature helps the writer to realize this complexity in perspective. In short, a descriptive research is very important to help the writer understand the view of those problems and find route through it.
From the description above, the writer is interested in carrying out the study on "A Descriptive Study on Classroom Interaction of English Teaching-Learning Process in the Large Classes of The First Year Students in SMAN X".
B. Identification of The Problem
Having given the background of the study, the writer would like to identify the problems as follows:
1. How is the form of classroom interaction in the large classes?
2. How are the teacher talk and the students talk in the large classes?
3. How are the opportunities of the students in the front zone and in the back zone of large classes?
4. How is the atmosphere of English teaching-learning process in the large classes?
5. Does the teacher encourage the students to engage in the English teaching learning process?
6. Are the students actively involved in the English teaching-learning process?
7. How is the rapport between the teacher and the students in the classroom interaction in large classes?
8. How are the teacher and the student role in the classroom interaction of large classes?
C. Limitation of The Problem
The study has a broad scope and it is impossible for the writer to handle all of the problems. Therefore, the writer limits the study as follows:
1. The form of Classroom Interaction in large classes of the first students in SMAN X.
2. The opportunity of the students in the front zone and in the back zone of large classes of the first students in SMAN X.
3. The rapport between teacher and students in the classroom interaction in large classes of the first students in SMA N I X.
4. The teacher and students role in the classroom interaction of large classes of the first students in SMAN X.
D. Problem Statement
Based on the problem limitation above, the problem statement in "a Descriptive Study on The Classroom Interaction of English Teaching Learning Process in Large Classes of The First Year Students SMAN X" is as follows:
1. How is the form of Classroom Interaction in large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
2. How are the opportunities of the students in the front zone and in the back zone of large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
3. How is the rapport between teacher and students in the classroom interaction in large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
4. How are the teacher and students role in the classroom interaction of large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
E. The Purpose of The Study
The research is conducted to describe the classroom interaction of English teaching-learning process in large classes of the first year students in SMAN X. The implication in this research includes the form of classroom interaction, the students' opportunity in teaching-learning process, the rapport between teacher and students, and also the student and teacher role in the process of teaching-learning process. Furthermore, it is also aimed to know more about the effectiveness of English teaching-learning process in the large classes, that is by describing the weakness and the strength of the classroom activities.
F. The Benefit of The Study
From this study, it is expected that the results of the research can give contribution to the improvement of the effective English teaching-learning process in general.
For the English teacher, especially the teacher of SMAN X, the results of this research can be used as a reflection about all his/her duties that have been done as long. As everybody knows, the daily hard work of the teacher often becomes an obstacle to make a reflection to what they have been taught in the class. By so doing, the teacher would become more responsible to improve their teaching skills in term of being more creative, innovative, and skillful in conducting the classroom. Moreover, it is also hoped that the teacher would be able to create a very convenient classroom to study. Within these efforts, they would be escaped from the "daily mechanics" activities.
Besides, for the writer, some benefits, which can be reached from this research is that it may give many new valuable experiences in English teaching-learning process for the preparation of the future ideal. In addition, it can give deep understanding about the nature of English teaching-learning process in the large classes like what have been conducted in Indonesia as long.