Maret 2011 ~ gudang makalah, skripsi dan tesis
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Terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

SKRIPSI PTK UPAYA MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MEMBACA DAN MENULIS PERMULAAN DENGAN METODE KOOPERATIF INTEGRASI MEMBACA DAN KOMPOSISI (CIRC)

(KODE PTK-0052) : SKRIPSI PTK UPAYA MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN MEMBACA DAN MENULIS PERMULAAN DENGAN METODE KOOPERATIF INTEGRASI MEMBACA DAN KOMPOSISI (CIRC) (MATA PELAJARAN : BAHASA INDONESIA)




BAB I
PENDAHULUAN


A. Latar Belakang Masalah
Membaca adalah modal bagi seseorang untuk mempelajari buku dan mencari informasi tertulis. Membaca bagi seorang siswa juga menjadi modal agar dapat mengikuti kegiatan pembelajaran. Selain membaca, menulis juga harus dikuasai oleh siswa agar siswa dapat mengikuti pembelajaran dengan lancar. Karena itu, kemampuan membaca dan menulis bagi siswa menjadi modal utama untuk dapat mengikuti kegiatan belajar mengajar atau kegiatan pembelajaran.
Membaca dan menulis merupakan dasar bagi seseorang untuk dapat melakukan komunikasi secara tertulis. Komunikasi merupakan satu hal yang penting bagi manusia untuk dapat tetap bertahan hidup dan bermasyarakat. Tanpa komunikasi, maka manusia tidak akan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya sendiri. Karena itulah maka komunikasi sangat penting bagi manusia dalam menjalani hidup di dunia ini. Salah satu bekal untuk dapat berkomunikasi tersebut manusia harus dapat membaca dan menulis.
Kemampuan membaca dan menulis tersebut dimaksudkan untuk dapat memahami bahasa komunikasi. Bahasa merupakan salah satu alat untuk berkomunikasi dan sangat besar fungsinya. Karena pentingnya membaca dan menulis, maka hal tersebut diajarkan kepada siswa di sekolah. Dengan belajar dan menulis, maka siswa akan dapat melakukan komunikasi dalam kehidupan sosialnya sehari-hari.
Pentingnya kemampuan membaca dan menulis bagi siswa menjadikan pembelajaran membaca dan menulis menjadi pelajaran paling awal yang harus diikuti oleh siswa. Karena itu, pelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan dimasukkan dalam kurikulum sekolah dasar pada kelas I. Namun demikian, adanya tuntutan jaman yang semakin canggih dan cepat, pelajaran membaca dan menulis telah dikenalkan kepada para peserta didik di TK. Hal ini tentunya akan mempengaruhi kemampuan membaca dan menulis permulaan siswa ketika masuk ke sekolah tingkat dasar.
Pembelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan merupakan bagian dari pembelajaran bahasa. Bahasa merupakan alat penting bagi manusia untuk komunikasi (Gorys Keraf, 980: 1). Selain itu, bahasa merupakan sarana berpikir keilmuan (Herman J Waluyo, 2006: 30). Sebagai sarana komunikasi dan juga sebagai sarana berpikir keilmuan, maka bahasa menjadi vital dan penting untuk dipelajari. Pembelajaran bahasa dimulai dari pembelajaran membaca dan menulis.
Kurikulum sekolah di Indonesia saat ini, yaitu Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP, 2006: 22) di dalamnya mencantumkan pelajaran bahasa Indonesia sebagai salah satu mata pelajaran wajib. Sebagai pelajaran wajib, maka semua siswa mendapatkan pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia. Pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia bertujuan agar peserta didik memiliki kemampuan berkomunikasi secara efektif dan efisien sesuai dengan etika yang berlaku, baik secara lisan maupun tertulis.
Pembelajaran di sekolah memerlukan pengelolaan yang baik agar dapat diperoleh pembelajaran yang efektif. Pembelajaran yang efektif adalah suatu pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa untuk belajar keterampilan spesifik, ilmu pengetahuan, dan sikap serta membuat siswa senang (Dick E Reiser, 1998). Sementara itu Dunne & Wragg (1996) menjelaskan bahwa pembelajaran efektif memudahkan siswa belajar sesuatu yang bemanfaat seperti fakta, keterampilan, nilai, konsep, cara hidup serasi dengan sesama, atau sesuatu hasil belajar yang diinginkan. Karena itulah untuk dapat memperoleh pembelajaran yang efektif guru harus dapat mengelola kegiatan belajar mengajar dengan sebaik-baiknya, yaitu kegiatan belajar yang aktif, kreatif, dan menyenangkan. Hal ini sebagaimana dikemukakan oleh A Malik Fajar bahwa secara umum KBM di sekolah harus menyenangkan, mengasikkan, mencerdaskan, dan menguatkan daya pikir siswa, yang berpedoman pada tujuan, sehingga KBM akan lebih efektif (pengelolaan KBM, 2003. 1).
Pembelajaran yang efekti merupakan pembelajaran yang dilakukan untuk dapat meningkatkan mutu pendidikan. Peningkatan mutu pendidikan saat ini merupakan suatu hal yang segera harus dilakukan. Mengingat mutu pendidikan saat ini mulai menurun, terutama pendidikan moral yang dapat dilihat dari hasil pendidikan yang saat ini banyak yang tidak memiliki moral. Banyaknya pejabat yang melakukan tindakan amoral merupakan salah satu petunjuk bahwa pendidikan di Indonesia belum memperoleh hasil sebagaimana yang diharapkan. Rendahnya mutu pendidikan dikarenakan oleh kegiatan pendidikan yang tidak berkualitas. Untuk dapat menghasilkan lulusan yang berkualitas, maka hal tersebut hanya dapat dihasilkan melalui pendidikan yang berkualitas juga (Umaedi, 1999: 1).
Pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia hingga saat ini belum menampakkan hasil yang maksimal. Banyak siswa yang tidak dapat menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dengan baik dan benar. Dapat dilihat di beberapa jenjang pendidikan termasuk pendidikan tinggi, bahkan para lulusan perguruan tinggi sering melakukan kesalahan dalam menggunakan bahasa Indonesia yang baik dan benar. Kesalahan penggunaan bahasa Indonesia sering terlihat pada kegiatan menulis. Rendahnya kemampuan lulusan sekolah dalam menggunakan bahasa Indonesia yang baik dan benar dikarenakan pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia yang kurang berhasil.
Kurangnya keberhasilan pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia dikarenakan guru tidak melakukan pengelolaan kegiatan pembelajar mengajar sebagaimana mestinya. Perlu diketahui bahwa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran, terdapat tiga aspek dalam pembelajaran (Lindgren, 1976). Ketiga aspek tersebut, pertama, siswa yang merupakan faktor yang paling penting karena tanpa siswa tidak akan ada proses belajar. Kedua, proses belajar yaitu apa saja yang dihayati siswa apabila mereka belajar, bukan apa yang harus dilakukan pendidik untuk mengajarkan materi pelajaran melainkan apa yang dilakukan siswa untuk mempelajarinya. Ketiga, situasi belajar, yaitu lingkungan temapt terjadinya proses belajar dan semua factor yang mempengaruhi siswa atau proses belajar seperti pendidik, kelas dan interaksi di dalamnya.
Pembelajaran bahasa dimulai dari membaca dan menulis. Pembelajaran membaca dan menulis dimulai sejak anak masuk di kelas I sekolah dasar. Dalam hal ini, siswa belajar membaca dan menulis permulaan. Belajar membaca dan menulis permulaan yaitu belajar mengenal huruf, bunyi huruf, merangkai huruf menjadi suku kata, merangkai suku kata menjadi kata, dan akhirnya merangkai kata menjadi kalimat. Pembelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan pada siswa kelas I dimaksudkan agar siswa dapat memiliki keterampilan membaca dan menulis. Keterampilan membaca dan menulis dalam hal ini merupakan keterampilan dalam tingkat dasar, yaitu siswa dapat membaca dan menulis dengan lancar.
Agar keterampilan membaca dan menulis permulaan pada siswa SD dapat dilakukan dengan baik serta diperoleh hasil yang maksimal, diperlukan suatu strategi pembelajaran yang efektif dan efisien. Mengingat pentingnya pelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan sebagai dasar untuk memperoleh ilmu pengetahuan, maka perlu diupayakan suatu alternatif strategi pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia, khususnya dalam pembelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan di SD yang tepat. Keluhan tentang kekurang terampilan siswa dalam membaca dan menulis di SD pada pelajaran bahasa Indonesia sampai saat ini masih dirasakan, bahkan dalam kenyataan ada keluhan guru yang mengajar di kelas II dan III SD masih ada siswa yang belum dapat membaca dan menulis. Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi keadaan tersebut, namun utamanya adalah dalam pembelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan. Keberhasilan pembelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan memerlukan dukungan dari beberapa faktor, antara lain adalah faktor keluarga, fasilitas, motivasi, dan terutama adalah metode pembelajaran yang sesuai.
Kemampuan membaca dan menulis permulaan pada siswa kelas I yang berada di daerah perkotaan dan pedesaan tentunya juga memiliki perbedaan. Kasus yang sama juga dapat terjadi antara sekolah dengan tingkatan menengah atas dengan sekolah pada tingkatan menengah bawah. Hal ini tentunya dapat menjadi perhatian tersendiri bagi pada praktisi pendidikan. Karena itu, sangat perlu dilakukan penelitian agar gap atau jarak antara sekolah dengan kategori menengah atas dengan menengah bawah tidak telalu jauh.
Berbagai metode dan pendekatan pembelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan pada siswa kelas I cukup banyak. Banyaknya metode tersebut tentunya memerlukan kemampuan guru untuk memilih metode yang paling sesuai dengan situasi dan kondisi. Karena setiap metode memiliki kelebihan dan kelemahan yang berbeda-beda. Karena itulah maka guru harus dapat memahami kelasnya masing-masing agar dapat memilih metode yang tepat untuk kelasnya.
Siswa kelas I di Sekolah Dasar Negeri X selama ini masih memiliki kemampuan menulis dan membaca yang rendah. Hal ini dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor. Salah satu faktor yang mungkin mempengaruhi rendahnya kemampuan siswa tersebut adalah pada metode pembelajaran yang digunakan guru selama ini. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan eksperimen atau tindakan pembelajaran dengan metode yang berbeda. Salah satu metode yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan membaca dan menulis permulaan adalah dengan metode pembelajaran kooperatif Integrasi Membaca dan Komposisi (CIRC). Karena itulah maka penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mencoba menggunakan metode pembelajaran kooperatif Integrasi Membaca dan Komposisi (CIRC) dalam pembelajaran membaca dan menulis permulaan bagi siswa kelas I Sekolah Dasar.

B. Rumusan Masalah
Berdasarkan latar belakang masalah di atas, maka dapat dirumuskan permasalahan sebagai berikut:
1. Bagaimanakah penerapan metode pembelajaran kooperatif Integrasi Membaca dan Komposisi (CIRC) dalam upaya meningkatkan kemampuan membaca dan menulis permulaan pada siswa kelas I SD Negeri X?
2. Apakah penerapan metode pembelajaran kooperatif Integrasi Membaca dan Komposisi (CIRC) dapat meningkatkan kemampuan membaca dan menulis permulaan pada siswa kelas I SD Negeri X?

C. Tujuan Penelitian
Berdasarkan rumusan masalah di atas, maka tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk:
1. Mendeskripsikan dan menjelaskan penerapan metode pembelajaran kooperatif Integrasi Membaca dan Komposisi (CIRC) dalam upaya meningkatkan kemampuan membaca dan menulis permulaan pada siswa kelas I SD Negeri X.
2. Meningkatkan kemampuan membaca dan menulis permulaan dengan penerapan metode pembelajaran kooperatif Integrasi Membaca dan Komposisi (CIRC) pada siswa kelas I SD Negeri X.

D. Manfaat Penelitian
Sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian, maka penelitian ini diharapkan memiliki manfaat sebagai berikut:
1. Bagi siswa
a. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kemampuan membaca menulis permulaan.
b. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat meningkatkan keaktifan, motivasi, minat, dan partisipasi siswa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran.
2. Bagi guru
a. Hasil penelitian dapat menjadi wawasan bagi guru dalam menggunakan metode pembelajaran kooperatif Integrasi Membaca dan Komposisi (CIRC).
b. Hasil penelitian dapat menjadi bahan inspirasi untuk menentukan metode lain dalam melakukan kegiatan belajar mengajar.
3. Bagi sekolah
Bagi sekolah diharapkan dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan prestasi sekolah secara keseluruhan.

SKRIPSI PTK PENERAPAN METODE NUMBERED HEADS TOGETHER SEBAGAI UPAYA MENINGKATKAN MOTIVASI SISWA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PKN

(KODE PTK-0051) : SKRIPSI PTK PENERAPAN METODE NUMBERED HEADS TOGETHER SEBAGAI UPAYA MENINGKATKAN MOTIVASI SISWA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PKN (MATA PELAJARAN : PKN)




BAB I
PENDAHULUAN


A. Latar Belakang Masalah
Pembelajaran merupakan suatu proses yang melibatkan berbagai komponen, bersifat timbal balik, dan untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan. Pada dasarnya baik tidaknya pembelajaran yang berlangsung sangat menentukan perolehan hasil belajar, yang pada kenyataannya tidak pernah lepas dari masalah.
Masalah proses belajar mengajar pada umumnya terjadi di kelas. Kelas dalam hal ini dapat berarti ruangan yang digunakan oleh guru dan anak didiknya dalam melakukan segala kegiatan yang berkaitan dengan proses belajar mengajar.
Salah satu upaya pembaharuan dalam bidang pendidikan adalah pembaharuan metode mengajar. Metode mengajar dapat dikatakan relevan jika mampu mengantarkan siswa mencapai tujuan pendidikan pada umumnya dan tujuan pendidikan kewarganegaraan pada khususnya.
Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan (PKn) adalah salah satu mata pelajaran wajib pada kurikulum pendidikan dasar dan menengah serta kurikulum pendidikan tinggi sebagaimana yang tertuang dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional Pasal 37 ayat (1) Kurikulum pendidikan dasar dan menengah wajib memuat: (a) Pendidikan agama; (b) Pendidikan kewarganegaraan; (c) Bahasa; (d) Matematika; (e) Ilmu pengetahuan alam; (f) Ilmu pengetahuan sosial; (g) Seni dan budaya; (h) Pendidikan jasmani dan olahraga; (i) Ketrampilan/kejuruan; dan (j) Muatan lokal dan ayat (2) Kurikulum pendidikan tinggi wajib memuat: (a) Pendidikan agama; (b) Pendidikan kewarganegaraan; dan (c) Bahasa.
Tujuan Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan adalah untuk menumbuhkan wawasan dan kesadaran bernegara, serta membentuk sikap dan perilaku cinta tanah air yang bersendikan kebudayaan bangsa (Kardiyat Wiharyanto, 2005 : 3).
Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan adalah salah satu mata pelajaran yang pengusaannya menuntut siswa menghafal materi yang telah disampaikan, sehingga terkadang siswa merasa kesulitan dalam mengikuti proses pembelajaran. Akibatnya, siswa menampakkan sikap acuh dan malas. Perilaku siswa yang demikian tentu saja menunjukkan motivasi mereka terhadap pembelajaran PKn masih rendah. Motivasi yang masih rendah tersebut mungkin juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor gaya mengajar atau metode mengajar yang diterapkan oleh guru.
Guru dituntut dapat mengkomunikasikan materi pelajaran kepada siswa dengan baik agar materi dapat dipahami sepenuhnya oleh siswa. Tetapi guru juga harus bisa membangkitkan motivasi siswa, karena bagaimanapun motivasi akan mempengaruhi hasil belajar siswa. Pembelajaran PKn saat ini dirasa masih banyak menggunakan metode mengajar konvensional. Hal ini menyebabkan siswa menjadi kurang termotivasi dalam belajar. Dalam metode ini, siswa hanya mendengarkan penjelasan dari guru dan kurang melibatkan peran serta siswa, sehingga siswa cenderung jenuh dan tidak dapat berkonsentrasi dalam belajar. Demikian pula yang terjadi di SMPN X.
SMPN X adalah merupakan sekolah yang sekarang telah mengalami berbagai perubahan. Adanya pergantian pemimpin yang semakin lama bergerak kearah perbaikan. Keadaan sekolah terletak strategis di tepi jalan raya menyebabkan kondisi belajar mengajar sedikit tergganggu. Sehingga diperlukan suatu kondisi pembelajaran yang menyenangkan.
Berdasarkan wawancara dengan seorang guru PKn kelas VII SMPN X pada bulan Januari XXXX dilaporkan bahwa ketika kegiatan belajar mengajar berlangsung ada sebagian siswa yang ramai, tidak serius, dan tidak berkonsentrasi. Sikap siswa yang demikian menunjukkan bahwa motivasi mereka dalam mengikuti pembelajaran PKn masih rendah.
Guru memaparkan bahwa motivasi siswa yang rendah disebabkan karena beberapa kemungkinan, diantaranya: siswa lebih tertarik dengan mata pelajaran yang lain, siswa menganggap mudah mata pelajaran PKn, metode yang selama ini diterapkan oleh guru masih konvensional.
Berdasarkan hasil wawancara di atas terdapat tiga kemungkinan penyebab rendahnya motivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran PKn. Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan memperbaiki model pembelajaran. Ada berbagai model pembelajaran, diantaranya: "model pembelajaran kooperatif, model pembelajaran kontekstual, model pembelajaran langsung dan model pembelajaran induktif" (Mohammad Faiq, XXXX).
Dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan motivasi siswa maka dapat digunakan model pembelajaran kooperatif. Pembelajaran kooperatif dapat mengembangkan interaksi siswa sehingga menumbuhkan kemampuan kerja sama dan mengembangkan sikap sosial siswa. Di samping itu model pembelajaran kooperatif bisa membantu meningkatkan peran serta siswa dalam pembelajaran di kelas, sehingga siswa tidak mudah jenuh. Dalam pembelajaran kooperatif terdapat berbagai macam metode, yaitu: " Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD), Group Investigation (GI,) Jigsaw, Structural Approach (Numbered Heads Together dan Think Pare Share)" (Richard I. Arends, 2000: 323-326).
Salah satu model pembelajaran kooperatif adalah metode Numbered Heads Together. Diantara metode pembelajaran kooperatif yang lain metode Numbered Heads Together lebih mudah untuk diterapkan. Selain itu metode Numbered Heads Together dapat meningkatkan motivasi siswa, sebagaimana dipaparkan oleh Suci Intan Sari (2007) dalam sebuah penelitian yang berjudul "Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Numbered Heads Together (NHT) Dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Motivasi Dan Prestasi Belajar Matematika Siswa (Suatu Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Terhadap Siswa Kelas X-B SMA Negeri 1 Lembang)". Dalam penelitian tersebut disimpulkan bahwa penerapan metode Numbered Heads Together dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar matematika siswa.
Metode Numbered Heads Together adalah suatu metode mengajar dimana setiap siswa diberi nomor kemudian secara acak guru memanggil salah satu nomor dari siswa untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan dari guru. Guru menunjuk siswa lain untuk memberikan tanggapannya, kemudian guru memberi kesimpulan. Metode ini dikembangkan untuk membangun kelas sebagai komunitas belajar yang menghargai semua kemampuan siswa. Hal ini disebabkan dalam metode pembelajaran Numbered Heads Together, semua siswa dituntut untuk mengemukakan pendapat sesuai dengan apa yang mereka pahami. Kelebihan Metode Numbered Heads Together yaitu setiap siswa siap, dan siswa yang pandai dapat mengajari siswa yang kurang pandai.
Melalui metode Numbered Heads Together diharapkan siswa akan termotivasi dalam mengikuti proses pembelajaran PKn. Siswa dituntut untuk berperan aktif dalam kelompoknya sehingga tidak mudah merasa bosan dan tetap berkonsentrasi selama pembelajaran berlangsung.
Berdasar uraian dan fenomena di atas, maka penulis tertarik untuk mengadakan penelitian tindakan kelas dengan judul " Penerapan Metode Numbered Heads Together Sebagai Upaya Meningkatkan Motivasi Siswa Dalam Pembelajaran PKn kelas VII E SMPN X Tahun Ajaran XXXX/XXXX".

B. Identifikasi Masalah
Berdasar latar belakang masalah di atas maka masalah dapat diidentifikasi sebagai berikut :
1. Motivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran PKn kelas VII E SMPN X masih rendah.
2. Proses belajar mengajar masih terfokus pada guru, karena guru masih menggunakan metode konvensional.
3. Pengelolaan kelas kurang kondusif.

C. Pembatasan Masalah
Berdasarkan latar belakang serta identifikasi di atas maka masalah dapat dibatasi agar lebih jelas.
Masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah tentang motivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran PKn kelas VII E SMPN X tahun ajaran XXXX/XXXX yang rendah. Rendahnya motivasi akan ditingkatkan melalui penerapan metode Numbered Heads Together

D. Perumusan Masalah
Berdasarkan latar belakang, identifikasi masalah dan pembatasan masalah yang telah disampaikan di atas, maka masalahnya dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut :
"Apakah metode Numbered Heads Together dapat meningkatkan motivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran PKn kelas VII E SMPN X?"

E. Tujuan Penelitian
Berdasarkan latar belakang masalah, identifikasi masalah, pembatasan masalah serta perumusan masalah di atas maka penulis mempunyai tujuan sebagai berikut :
"Untuk mengetahui apakah metode Numbered Heads Together dapat meningkatkan motivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran PKn kelas VII E SMPN X".

F. Manfaat Penelitian
1. Manfaat teoritis
a. Dapat menemukan teori atau pengetahuan baru tentang peningkatan motivasi belajar melalui penggunaan metode Number Heads Together
b. Sebagai dasar penelitian selanjutnya.
2. Manfaat Praktis
a. Bagi siswa, dapat menikmati model pembelajaran yang tidak seperti biasanya sehingga mereka tidak jenuh dan tertarik untuk mengikuti proses pembelajaran yang sedang berlangsung.
b. Bagi guru, dapat mengembangkan metode dalam pembelajaran PKn agar lebih bervariatif sehingga tidak menimbulkan kebosanan bagi peserta didiknya.
c. Bagi sekolah, hasil pengembangan ini dapat dijadikan acuan dalam upaya pengadaan inovasi pembelajaran PKn bagi para guru PKn yang lain
d. Bagi peneliti, memberikan masukan bagi calon guru dalam memilih dan menggunakan metode Numbered Heads Together sebagai metode yang tepat untuk meningkatkan motivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran PKn.

SKRIPSI PTK PENINGKATAN KREATIFITAS ANAK DIDIK MELALUI PERCOBAAN SAINS DI TK

(KODE PTK-0050) : SKRIPSI PTK PENINGKATAN KREATIFITAS ANAK DIDIK MELALUI PERCOBAAN SAINS DI TK




BAB I
PENDAHULUAN


A. Latar Belakang
Pendidikan mempunyai perencanaan yang sangat menentukan bagi perkembangan dan perwujudan diri individu, terutama bagi pembangunan bangsa dan negara. Kemajuan suatu kebudayaan bergantung kepada cara kebudayaan tersebut mengenali, menghargai, dan memanfaatkan sumber daya manusia dan hal ini berkaitan erat dengan kualitas pendidikan yang diberikan kepada anggota masyarakatnya, kepada peserta didik.
Sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas hanya dapat diciptakan lewat lembaga pendidikan, baik pendidikan formal maupun pendidikan non formal. Kedua lembaga ini secara simultan memproses row input untuk dapat lebih cerdas sebagaimana yang diamanatkan oleh Pembukaan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Alinea ke empat, "mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa".
Indikator sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas, satu diantaranya adalah munculnya produk kreatif seseorang. Produk kreatif akan muncul bila mana ada motivasi baik motivasi intrinsik maupun ekstrinsik disertai komitmen yang tinggi untuk mencapai prestasi serta adanya wahana yang memungkinkan munculnya kreativitas. Semakin tinggi potensi kreativitas seseorang dan didukung keterbukaan wahana untuk mengekspresikan kreativitasnya, maka semakin terbuka pulalah peluang munculnya produk kreatif.
Berkenaan dengan hal diatas, maka fungsi sekolah sebagai wahana menumbuh kembangkan kreativitas jiwa harus dioptimalkan. (Dedi Supriyadi, 1997:18). Guru harus piawai didalam menyusun skenario pembelajaran. Skenario atau desain pembelajaran yang baik adalah yang memungkinkan siswa dapat mengekspresikan kreativitasnya.
Manusia membutuhkan pendidikan dalam kehidupanya. Pendidikan merupakan usaha agar manusia dapat mengembangkan potensi dirinya melalui proses pembelajaran dan atau cara lain yang dikenal dan diakui oleh masyarakat. Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945 Pasal 31 ayat (1) menyebutkan bahwa setiap warga negara berhak mendapat pendidikan, dan ayat (3) menegaskan bahwa pemerintah mengusahakan dan menyelenggarakan satu sistem pendidikan nasional yang meningkatkan keimanan dan ketaqwaan serta ahlak mulia dalam rangka mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa yang diatur dengan undang-undang. Untuk itu, seluruh komponen bangsa wajib mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa yang merupakan salah satu tujuan negara Indonesia. Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (UU Sisdiknas) Nomor 20 Tahun 2003.
Tujuan pendidikan pada umumnya ialah menyediakan lingkungan yang memungkinkan anak didik untuk mengembangkan bakat dan kemampuanya secara optimal, sehingga ia dapat mewujudakan dirinya dan berfungsi sepenuhnya, sesuai dengan kebutuhan pribadinya dan kebutuhan masyarakat. Setiap orang mempunyai bakat dan kemampuan yang berbeda-beda pula. Pendidikan bertujuan untuk memandu (yaitu mengidentifikasi dan membina serta memupuk (yaitu mengemengembangkan dan meningkatkan) bakat tersebut, termasuk dari mereka yang berbakat istimewa atau memiliki kemampuuan dan kecerdasan luar biasa. (Munandar. 1999:6).
Setiap warga negara mempunyai hak yang sama untuk memperoleh pendidikan. Penerimaan seseorang sebagai peserta didik dalam suatu satuan pendidikan diselenggarakan dengan tidak membedakan jenis kelamin, agama, suku, ras, kedudukan sosial, dan tingkat kemampuan ekonomi dengan tetap mengindahkan kekhususan satuan pendidikan yang bersangkutan.
Adapun pendidikan formal seperti yang diuraikan pada pasal 14 UU RI No. 20 tahun 2003 tentang Sisdiknas menyatakan bahwa jenjang pendidikan formal terdiri dari pendidikan dasar, pendidikan menengah dan pendidikan tinggi. Berkaitan dengan usaha pemerintah meningkatkan kesiapan calon peserta didik untuk jenjang pendidikan dasar, maka diberlakukan kebijakan pendidikan anak usia dini.
Program pendidikan nasional, secara umum, meliputi tiga tahapan yaitu pendidikan dasar, pendidikan menengah dan pendidikan tinggi. Pendidikan dasar dimulai ketika anak menginjak usia enam tahun atau lebih. Sementara itu ketika anak berusia kurang dari enam tahun (antara empat sampai dengan lima tahun ), anak umumnya telah mengikuti pendidikan di Taman Kanak-kanak (TK), walaupun menurut program pendidikan nasional, pendidikan TK ini bukan merupakan jenjang pendidikan yang harus diikuti. Pendidikan di TK merupakan bentuk pendidikan fakultatif dalam rangka mempersiapkan anak-anak masuk ke pendidikan SD. Sekalipun bersifat fakultatif pendidikan di TK, tetap diakui eksistensinya sebagai suatu jenis pendidikan yang penting karena keberadaanya itu merupakan basis bagi pendidikan selanjutnya, terutama dalam bidang pendidikan kreatif.
Dalam PP RI Nomor 27, tahun 1990 tentang pendidikan prasekolah menjadi lebih kuat setelah munculnya dasar hukum tambahan. Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia Nomor 0486/U/1992 Bab I Pasal 2 Ayat (1) yang telah dinyatakan bahwa Pendidikan Taman Kanak-kanak merupakan wadah untuk membantu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan jasmani dan rokhani anak didik sesuai dengan sifat-sifat alami anak (Soemantri Patmodewo, 2000 :44).
Taman Kanak-kanak didirikan sebagai usaha mengembangkan seluruh segi kepribadian anak didik dalam rangka menjembatani pendididkan dalam keluarga ke pendidikan sekolah. TK merupakan salah satu bentuk pendidikan prasekolah adalah pendidikan untuk membantu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan jasmani dan rohani anak didik diluar lingkungan keluarga sebelum memasuki pendidikan dasar.
Kegiatan di Taman Kanak-kanak tentunya sangat berbeda dengan kegiatan pembelajaran di Sekolah Dasar. Kegiatan di TK dilaksanakan dengan cara bermain sesuai dengan prinsip TK yaitu "bermain sambil belajar, dan belajar seraya bermain", hal ini merupakan cara yang paling efektif, karena dengan bermain anak dapat mengembangkan berbagai kreativitas anak didik di TK, termasuk perkembangan motorik halus anak, meningkatkan penalaran dan memahami keberadaan lingkungan, terbentuk imajinasi, mengikuti imajinasi, mengikuti peraturan, tata tertib dan disiplin. Dalam kegiatan bermain anak menggunakan seluruh aspek pancainderanya.
Dengan bermain anak dapat menemukan lingkungan orang lain, dan menemukan dirinya sendiri, sehingga anak dapat bersosialisasi dengan lingkungan tersebut, anak dapat menghargai orang lain, tenggang rasa terhadap orang lain, tolong menolong sesama teman dan yang lebih utama anak dapat menemukan pengalaman baru dalam kegiatan tersebut. Bermain dapat memotivasi anak untuk mengetahui segala sesuatu secara lebih mendalam, dan secara spontan anak dapat mengembangkan bahasanya, dengan bermain anak dapat bereksperimen.
Kegiatan bermain di TK merupakan hal yang menyenangkan, kegiatan belajar di TK adalah bermain yang kreatif dan menyenangkan. Dengan demikian anak didik tidak akan canggung lagi menghadapi cara pembelajaran dijenjang berikutnya. Dalam memberikan kegiatan belajar pada anak didik harus diperhatikan kematangan atau tahap perkembang kreativitas anak didik, alat bermain atau alat bantu, metode yang digunakan, serta waktu dan tempat bermainya.
Kegiatan percobaan sains ini merupakan salah satu cara agar anak lebih bersemangat mengikuti pembelajaran di TK, karena kegiatan percobaan sains dapat mengembangkan aspek perkembangan anak didik, yakni aspek bahasa, kognitif, kreativitas, psikososial, dan fisiologis, dalam kegiatan percobaan sains anak akan diajak bereksplorasi, mengidentifikasi melakukan klasifikasi, prediksi, eksperimen, dan melakukan evaluasi. (Depdiknas, 2003 :3)
Menurut Hildebrand (1986), bahwa anak TK mempunyai dorongan yang kuat untuk mengenal lingkungan alam sekitar dan lingkungan sosialnya lebih baik. Anak ingin memahami segala sesuatu yang dilihat dan didengar (Moeslichatoen, 1999 : 10). Segala sesuatu yang diamati oleh inderanya. Untuk menanggapi dorongan tersebut anak berusaha menemukan jawaban sendiri dengan berbagai cara. Misalnya jawaban terhadap segala sesuatu yang dilihat, didengar, dicium, dirasakan atau diraba itu. Tentang bagaimana terjadinya, dari mana segala sesuatu itu berasal atau apa yang terjadi bila sesuatu itu dipegang, diubah kedudukanya, dibanting dan sebagainya.
Untuk mendapatkan informasi dan pengalaman anak TK mempunyai dorongan yang kuat untuk menjelajahi dan meneliti lingkunganya. Dengan menggerakkan dan memainkan sesuatu, anak akan memperoleh pengalaman. Anak juga mempunyai dorongan yang kuat untuk menguji dan mencoba kemampuan dan ketrampilanya terhadap sesuatu. Kegiatan mencoba ini tidak hanya memberikan kesenangan bagi anak melainkan juga memberi pengalaman yang lebih baik tentang sifat-sifat yang dimiliki sesuatu benda. Karena itu, bila anak TK diberi kesempatan untuk bereksperimentasi, mencoba, menguji dengan berbagai sumber belajar mereka akan memperoleh penyempurnaan dalam cara kerja mereka dan juga dapat mengapresiasi cara kerja anak lain.
Taman Kanak-kanak X, khususnya kelompok A, dalam pembelajaran sains dari prestasi akademik sudah membanggakan. Hal ini terbukti dengan nilai rata-rata ulangan harian selama semester I adalah 7,1. ini berarti taraf serap siswa mencapai 7,1% (Dokumentasi Guru, 2004). Dengan demikian Tujuan Pengembangan Produk masih sangat merisaukan. Dari daftar Nilai Pengamatan, diperoleh rata-rata nilai anak didik untuk Kreativitas masih 5,4 yang berarti masih dibawah batas belajar tuntas, yakni 7,5% (Dokumentasi Guru, 2004). Jumlah anak didik kelompok A adalah 44 anak, yang terdiri dari kelompok A1 berjumlah 22 anak dan kelompok A2 berjumlah 22 anak, dengan latar belakang sosial ekonomi orang tua lebih dari 80% mampu dan sudah sadar akan pendidikan anaknya, sehingga setiap anak didik memiliki berbagai perlengkapan untuk menunjang belajarnya di Sekolah.
Berpijak pada hal-hal tersebut diatas, secara khusus, patut dipertanyakan pula bagaimana percobaan sains di TK itu berlangsung dan dengan kata lain apakah percobaan sains dapat meningkatkan aspek perkembangan kreativitas anak didik di Taman Kanak-kanak.

B. Fokus Permasalah
Dari uraian latar belakang diatas, dapat diidentifikasi permaslahan yang timbul pada pembelajaran melalui percobaan sains di Taman Kanak-Kanak X adalah sebagai berikut :
1. Percobaan sains di TK masih menekankan pada tujuan pengembangan produk yang berupa prestasi akademik anak didik. Hal ini berarti baru potensi kecerdasan anak didik yang dikedepankan.
2. Proses ilmiah, khususnya kreativitas anak didik belum dikembangkan seoptimal mungkin.
3. Aktivitas guru dan siswa belum optimal, sehingga pembelajaran masih berpusat pada guru.

C. Rumusan Masalah
Dari fokus masalah tersebut diatas dapat dirumuskan permasalahan sebagai berikut :
"Bagaimanakah peningkakan aspek perkembangan kreativitas anak didik di Taman Kanak-kanak X setelah dilakukan percobaan sains ?"

D. Tujuan Penelitian
1. Tujuan Umum Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ini adalah meningkatkan kreativitas anak didik di Taman Kanak-Kanak X melalui percobaan-percobaan sains
2. Tujuan Khusus Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ini adalah setelah penelitian ini berahir, kreativitas siswa semakin meningkat secara bermakna yang ditunjukkan oleh indikator-indikator sebagai berikut :
a. Sekurang-kurangnya guru terampil membuat rencana pembelajaran melalui percobaan sains dengan metode eksperimen
b. Sekurang-kurangnya aktivitas guru selama percobaan sains dengan metode eksperimen meningkat baik.
c. Sekurang-kurangnya akti vitas anak didik yang berupa gagasan kreatif dan sikap ilmiah baik.

E. Manfaat Penelitian
Hasil dari penelitian ini diharapkan dapat bermanfaat sebagai berikut :
1. Peneliti
Dengan pelaksanaan penelitian tindakan kelas ini peneliti memiliki pengetahuan, keterampilan dan pengalaman tentang PTK, khususnya penerapan metode eksperimen yang benar dan tepat, serta peneliti mampu mendeteksi permasaslahan yang ada didalam proses pembelajaran sekaligus mencari alternatif solusi yang tepat. Selain itu, peneliti mampu memperbaiki proses pembelajaran didalam kelas dalam rangka meningkatkan kreativitas siswa.
2. Anak Didik
a. Anak Didik dapat berekspresi kreatif sesuai dengan potensi kreativitasnya
b. Mengurangi rasa ketakutan untuk berbeda pendapat, karena didalam kreativitas memungkinkan adanya keberagaman.
3. Yayasan Lembaga Pendidikan Islam Taman Kanak-Kanak X
a. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ini merupakan aset penting karena hal ini dalam rangka meningkatkan kreativitas siswa.
b. Sebagai acuan jika akan melakukan kegiatan sejenis.

F. Sistematika Skripsi
Skripsi ini penulis susun dalam sistematika sebagai berikut:
1. Bagian Awal, berisi : halaman judul, halaman persetujan pembimbing, halaman pengesahan, motto dan persembahan, kata pengantar, sari, daftar isi, daftar tabel, daftar gambar, daftar lampiran.
2. Bagian isi, terdiri dari :
Bab I : Pendahuluan yang berisi latar belakang masalah, fokus masalah, rumusan masalah, tujuan penelitian, manfaat penelitian, sistematika skripsi.
Bab II : Landasan teori.
Bab III : Metode penelitian, yang terdiri dari rancangan penelitian, data dan teknik pengumpulanya, serta indikator kinerja.
Bab IV : Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan
Bab V : Penutup berisi : simpulan dan saran.
3. Bagian Ahir, berisi daftar pustaka dan lampiran-lampiran.

SKRIPSI PTK TEACHING ENGLISH THROUGH FUN ACTIVITIES

(KODE PTK-0049) : SKRIPSI PTK TEACHING ENGLISH THROUGH FUN ACTIVITIES (MATA PELAJARAN : BAHASA INGGRIS)




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background of the Study
English has played an important role in the world as a means of international communication. Crystal (in Lee McKey.2000: 7) says that English is rapidly assuming the role of a world language, and no other language has spread around the globe so extensively, making English a truly international language. Thus, the mastery of English is a requisite for a nation to communicate with other nations.
In Indonesia, English is the first foreign language that has to be taught in many levels of education, from the Primary School to the university. In recent years, most of the Primary Schools have begun to introduce English into their curriculum as a local content. It is clearly sated in the curriculum in primary education:
"Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris tidak diwajibkan di sekolah dasar melainkan diselenggarakan sebagai muatan local. Pengajaran Bahasa Ingris di sekolah Dapat di mulai di kelas IV (GBPP MI SD 1995 : P.1)
It is not easy to teach English in the primary school. Teaching English in the primary school is really different from teaching English in higher level. Primary school students, as the young learner or children, have certain characteristics and need certain treatment. Consequently, it is necessary to the teacher to know about the primary school students' characteristics as young learners and notice their needs in order to make the learning - teaching process effectively done.
A good teacher should ensure that his or her teaching methods are suited to the level of cognitive development reached by the children at their schooling stage, and thus avoid many behavior problems that occur when children become bored and unable to follow what is being taught. Routine activities in learning can make the students bored.
One of the causes of failure in teaching English at the primary school is that the teacher still teaches with the routine activities without considering that it will make the students bored and lost their attention to the learning - teaching process. As a result, the students will not be able to follow the lesson well because they loose their interest. Douglash (1987. p 48) stated "Routine activities in learning can make the students bored. As a result, their motivation and participation in learning will decrease". Here, interest becomes a crucial factor in deciding in teaching children on classroom practice. So, the teacher should apply the right teaching technique which can increase the students' interest to the learning process in the classroom. In other words, the technique used by the teacher in teaching English to the primary school students should be able to create an interesting atmosphere so that the students will be enthusiastic to the learning process.
At the primary school where the writer conducts the research, there is the same phenomenon in which the students face the problem in learning English. The students' motivation is still low. Most of the students are not interested in the learning - teaching process. It can be seen from their behaviors in the classroom when the learning - teaching process is in progress. They are still noisy all the time and do not pay attention to the teacher's explanation. However, when the teacher shows them some things interesting such as pictures, toys, flashcards, etc, they are little bit quiet to know what the teacher is going to do. They always want to have a joyful and interesting atmosphere in the learning - teaching process. They are really not interested in a monotonous or routine activity done by the teacher.
Based on the phenomenon found in the teaching English at primary school above, the writer wants to carry out a research about improving the students' motivation and achievement in learning English. Here, the writer uses fun creating activities as the technique in teaching English. It is also aimed to change the atmosphere in the classroom, so that the students will feel more interested in having lesson and to be easier in learning English. The writer would like to study "Teaching English through Fun Activities" (A Classroom action Research in the Second Year Students of SD Negeri X).

B. Formulation of the Problem
In this research, the writer wants to know whether the use of fun creating activities can improve the students' motivation and achievement in learning English at primary school. The problems can be formulated as follows:
1. Does the use of fun activities improve the students' motivation in learning English?
2. Does the use of fun activities improve the students' vocabulary mastery?
3. What are the problems in implementing fun activities in the teaching process?

C. The Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are intended to improve the students' motivation and vocabulary mastery and to know what problems that may appear during the implementation of fun activities.

D. The Benefits of the Study
The research result is expected to be able to give some benefits to the teacher who teaches English at primary school, because the teacher can get description about how to use the teaching technique in teaching English to primary school students.
Besides, it can lead the teacher to create an interesting and comfortable atmosphere in the classroom, so that the students will not feel bored with the learning process.
For the students, it can serve them a different situation inside the classroom, so that they will be more interested in following the lesson. Related to the achievement, they will make a good progress.

SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY USING CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

(KODE PTK-0048) : SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY USING CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (MATA PELAJARAN : BAHASA INGGRIS)




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background of the Study
In recent year, English as a foreign language has been learned by Indonesian learners since they were in Elementary School. At the elementary school, English is taught as local content subject. The importance of English as the key to the international communication and commerce makes it compulsory subject for students from the Junior High School up to the Senior High School.
English vocabulary is one of the elements in teaching English at the elementary school. Vocabulary is the basic competence that must be reached by students in order to get other competencies like reading, writing, listening, and speaking. It is difficult to master the other competences without mastering and understanding the vocabulary. Rivers in Nunan (1991: 117) argues that the acquisition of an adequate vocabulary is essential for successful second language use because without an extensive vocabulary, we will be unable to use the structures and functions we may have learned for comprehensible communication. In the field of education, including English education in Indonesia, our education is still dominated by the view that knowledge is a set of facts which have to be memorized. Teaching learning process focuses on teacher as prominent source of knowledge. As a result, students have problems to understand academic concepts as what they usually get is something abstract and lecture method. Many students can serve good level of memorization of teaching material but in the end of teaching learning process they actually do not understand it at all. Actually memorization of teaching materials lasts for a short time in their memory and knowledge is not sets of facts which have to be memorized. Zahorik (1995) in DEPDIKNAS (2003) states:
Knowledge is constructed by humans. Knowledge is not a set of facts, concepts, or laws waiting to be discovered. It is not something that exists independent of knower. Humans create or construct knowledge as they attempt to bring meaning to their experience. Everything that we know, we have made.
Based on this opinion, learning process which focuses on the teacher is no longer suitable. It is because our brain is continuously finding meaning and saving meaningful cases, and learning process has to involve students in finding meaning. Teaching and learning process has to make it possible for the students to understand the meaning of their learning material.
Students as the learning subject are the starting point in teaching and learning which measure the success of the teaching learning process. Teaching and learning can be successful when the students can directly feel the advantages of learning materials by experiencing and learning it. There are many other factors supporting teaching and learning process, such as the using of appropriate media, learning materials which support teaching learning process, class management, and teacher's ability and creativity in developing and managing learning process optimally.
When the teaching and learning process takes place, problems would appear to the teacher. They have problems of how to teach them in order to gain satisfying result. The teacher should prepare and find out the appropriate techniques which are implemented to the students. A good teacher should prepare himself or herself with various and up-to-date techniques and mastering the material in order to be understood by students, and make children interested and happy in teaching and learning process in the classroom.
The teachers should concern that teaching vocabulary is something new and different from student's native language. They have to take into account that teaching English for young learners is different from adults. The teachers have to know the characteristics of young learners. The teachers need to prepare good techniques and a suitable material in order to gain the target of language teaching to the children.
Unlike adults who can learn formally in the classroom by following and attending teachers' explanation in the classroom, children tend to learn things by playing. For children, things are easy to learn when they are totally in their context. Children will learn something more meaningfully and interestingly when they can relate these things with their needs and personal experience. Students learn best by actively constructing their own understanding (CTL Academy Fellow, 1999).
Based on the pre-observation done by the writer in the third year of SDN X, teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesian elementary school faces many serious challenges. The problems are the students find it difficult to spell, understand the meaning and pronounce English words.
Some factors can cause these problems, like: (1) the way English words are written differ from the way the words are pronounced; (2) the rare use of the English language; (3) the lack of understanding of the teacher about who the children are; (4) there is no media used in teaching and learning process; and (5) the method used is not suitable for the students.
An appropriate method for teaching English for children is very important because appropriate method determines the result of teaching vocabulary, that is, improving student's vocabulary mastery. There are many methods that are appropriate in teaching English such as task based learning, experiential learning, Contextual Teaching and Learning, etc.
Contextual teaching and learning involves students totally in learning process. Students are motivated to be active to study the materials of learning suitable with the topic. CTL emphasizes on the process of students' involvement in order to be able to find the materials they will learn and connect it with the real situation, so it will motivate the students to apply what they learn in their daily lives. Learning in CTL is not just listening and take notes but learning is direct experiencing process. By that experience, it is hoped that students' development can happen; they do not only develop cognitive aspect, but also affective and psychomotor aspects. By using CTL, it is hoped that the students find the learning materials directly (not given by the teacher).
In http://vhajrie27.wordpress.com it is stated that CTL consists of 3 elements, contextual, teaching and learning. "Contextual" comes from the word context which means the situation in which and events happens. "Teaching" comes from the word teach, it means give lesson to somebody; give somebody knowledge, skill, et cetera. While "learning" comes from the word learn that means gain knowledge or skill in a subject or activity. It can be concluded that CTL is learning method whose process of learning involves 3 aspects, students as learning subject, teacher as mediator and facilitator, and the situation which is set by the teacher to get effective and planned learning process.
Johnson (XXXX: 65) states that CTL is a comprehensive system. CTL consists of components which are connected. If these components combine each other, it will give effect more than the result when the components are separated. Every different part of CTL contributes to help the students understand learning materials and assignments which connect with those materials. Students are assisted to form a system which makes it possible for the students to see the meaning and remember the learning materials they have studied before.
Contextual teaching learning is one of the methods appropriate in teaching English for children. In a CTL learning environment, students discover meaningful relationships between abstract ideas and practical applications in a real world context. Students learn something by experiencing by themselves. Contextual Teaching and Learning creates a team, whether in the classroom, language laboratory, or in the worksite. Students learn best by actively constructing their own understanding (CTL Academy Fellow, 1999).
Considering the importance of implementing a method in teaching English, the writer decides to carry out a research on "Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery using Contextual Teaching Learning (A Classroom Action Research at The Third Grade of SDN X in Academic Year XXXX/XXXX).

B. Problem Statements
The problems in this research are formulated as follows:
1. Does the implementation of contextual teaching and learning improve the students' vocabulary mastery of the third year students of SDN X Academic year XXXX/XXXX?
2. How do the students response when contextual teaching and learning is applied in teaching and learning process?

C. The Objectives of the Study
This study has some objectives which include:
1. To improve the students' vocabulary mastery at the third year students of SDN X Academic year XXXX/XXXX by using contextual teaching and learning.
2. To identify the students' responses in the process of teaching and learning at the third year students of SDN X Academic year XXXX/XXXX when contextual teaching and learning is applied in teaching and learning process.

D. The Benefits of the Study
This study gives some contributions for the improvement of the English language teaching and learning. The benefits are:
1. It enables teachers to get information and to select a suitable technique in teaching vocabulary at Elementary Schools. It is an important thing for the teacher to develop the technique in their classroom in order to make the students interested in the subject.
2. It enables other researcher to get reference about the implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning in improving students' vocabulary mastery.
3. It gives inputs to school about a suitable method in teaching vocabulary. The result of this study is expected to give more information about Contextual Teaching and Learning so that it can be applied in SDN X.
4. It gives spirit and knowledge for students that learning English can be fun and interesting. The students will not feel to be forced in learning English but they will feel happy to learn since they are put in an enjoyable situation.
Contextual Teaching and Learning stimulates the students to work in teams. They try to cooperate with other students to practice the language together. Students are expected to have a good improvement in vocabulary mastery.

SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY USING BEYOND CENTERS AND CIRCLE TIME METHOD

(KODE PTK-0047) : SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY USING BEYOND CENTERS AND CIRCLE TIME METHOD




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background of the Study
Indonesians have to master English as an International language either for communicative purpose or for academic purpose. English is used for mastering science and technology. Mastering English as a means of communication and transferring information in this global era becomes important reason for teaching English since the early years of play group and kindergarten.
At the moment the ability of speaking English is really needed on many fields. In Indonesia, English is taught and learnt as a compulsory subject from junior high school until university level. English is learnt in elementary school as a local content and it is also learnt in Kindergarten as a favorite program. English is taught in kindergarten just for introducing the children English as a foreign language. Besides that, it functions to give students basic knowledge of English so that they will do much better in elementary school. Brewter, et al. (1992: 102) support the statement by saying that "early foreign language learning also aims to prepare pupils for the more formal and exam-oriented courses in next school."
In many countries in the world, a foreign language such as English is learnt since primary school or kindergarten. Brewster, Ellis, and Girard (1992: 12) say that "In most countries, children are confronted with learning a foreign or second language at about the age of eleven, except where an earlier start is made in primary or pre school."
Learning English as early as possible is important. Some experts propose the reasons of early learning of a foreign language. Long in Ur (1996: 287) says that an early start to language learning is likely to lead to better long-term results if early learning is maintained and reinforced as the child gets older. According to Ohlsen (1961: 269), there is probably no best age for all individuals to begin to learn a foreign language. In childhood, the advantages are probably greater in developing linguistic flexibility and learning directly the concepts of a second language.
From those statements above, it can be concluded that early learning of a foreign language is recommended because, in long term, it will give better results for children. Besides, in childhood, children have a greater opportunity in terms of the development of linguistic flexibility and they have a better facility in understanding language than adolescents.
Furthermore, they say that children who have benefited from a properly thought out program of foreign language learning early, even if it has only been for two years, are better prepared to respond to the teaching in the next school as a natural continuation and development of what has gone before. (Brewter, 1992: 48). It means that learning a foreign language early has an advantages for students to be prepared in learning process in elementary school.
According to UU No. 20/2003, 1: 14 say that:
Pendidikan anak usia dini (PAUD) adalah suatu upaya pembinaan yang ditujukan kepada anak sejak lahir sampai dengan usia enam tahun yang dilakukan melalui pemberian rangsangan pendidikan untuk membantu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan jasmani dan rohani agar anak memiliki kesiapan dalam memasuki pendidikan lebih lanjut.
From the explanation above it can be concluded that the purpose of learning something in the kindergarten or preschool just for preparing the next education.
The potential of children's language trained and improved, because the children will appear good in using language since under five years olds. According to Brumfit, Moon, and Tongue (1997: 6), there are a number of reasons for teaching English at primary level that do not rely simply on the claim that is the best time to learn language well. One of them is the need to expose children from an early age to an understanding of foreign cultures so that they grow up tolerant and sympathetic to others. This is similar to what Brewster et al say: "Early foreign language learning in the more relaxed context of primary school has a good change of encouraging children to take an interest and develop a positive attitude towards the foreign country and its people" (1992: 50). It means that by learning a foreign language early, children can have an understanding about the country, the people, and also the culture where the language is spoken, so that they have a positive attitude towards them.
Another reason for teaching English since early is the need for maximum learning time for important languages-the earlier you start the more time you get. Brewster, et al. propose the same opinion. They say that:
"One reason for starting to learn a foreign language two or three years earlier (at five or six instead of eight or nine) might be simply to increase the total numbers of years spent learning the language in the belief that such an approach can't but be of benefit, no matter what the circumstances" (1992: 23).
It means that the longer students learn a foreign language the better result they will get from it. The students will have a lot of opportunity to learn English more.
Learning English particularly vocabulary is very important for supporting the ability of speaking, listening, writing and reading. Without mastering vocabulary one will face difficulties in improving the ability of communication with others, like the expert states that "Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." This is how the linguist David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary learning. His view is echoed in this advice to students from a recent course book (Dellar H and Hocking D, Innovation).
"If you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see most improvement if you learn more words and expression. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words!" (Thornbury: 13, 2002).
Most learners, too, acknowledge the importance of vocabulary acquisition. Here are some statements made by learners, in answer to the question. How would you like to improve your English?
"Oral is my weakness and I can't speak a fluent sentence in English. Sometimes, I am lack of useful vocabularies to express my opinion."
"I'd like to enlarge my vocabulary (this word I also had to find in dictionary). Too often my speaking is hard caused by missing words. (Thornbury:14, 2002).
However, vocabulary teaching has not always been very responsive to such problems, and teachers have not fully recognized the tremendous communicative advantage in developing an extensive vocabulary. In other word, most of teachers don't pay attention much in developing teaching vocabulary. They teach much for grammar, reading, speaking, listening, writing, etc,
To prepare students who are having good ability in communicating, the teacher should pay attention much in teaching vocabulary. Therefore, the students don't face difficulties in building sentences, and the difficulties in speaking caused missing words can be avoided. Teaching vocabulary can start from elementary or kindergarten when the students still in optimum grow up. When they gain vocabulary from early education, they can't face problem in higher education.
In Indonesia teaching vocabulary hasn't done optimal yet, it can be seen that the average students face difficulties in speaking. When the students in speech competition, they often stop speaking because they miss words. It caused their vocabulary is still limited. Besides, the teacher doesn't teach vocabulary to the students in early education (elementary or kindergarten). The students who are having limited vocabulary will face some problems, e.g. speaking, listening, reading, writing, etc.
Generally for secondary school, the teacher seldom teaches vocabulary, the students get new vocabulary only by reading. Meanwhile, for elementary or kindergarten the teacher still faces difficulties how to teach vocabulary to the students. The teacher hasn't found a good method how to teach vocabulary to the students. This paradigm needs to overcome soon, therefore for the future the students will get successful in learning vocabulary.
From the explanation above it can be concluded that vocabulary has an important role in mastering English. By mastering vocabulary the students will study English easily. This fact may support the English teacher to improve their role in teaching English. It is hoped by increasing the teaching and learning process the problem will overcome soon. The teacher is able to find a good method how to teach vocabulary to the students.
In X Kindergarten, the students have difficulties in learning English, particularly vocabulary in pronunciation, the use of words and understanding meaning. The students don't enjoy learning English. It can be seen from the result of test and interviewing the teacher and students. In X Kindergarten, learning English includes vocabulary, listening, and speaking. One of the teacher says that: "Yang diajarkan di sekolah kami antara lain kosa kata, kalimat perintah sederhana, juga percakapan sederhana." (SB, 2008: 5).
From the explanation above it can be concluded that vocabulary includes one of material that is taught at X Kindergarten. Related to vocabulary mastery, the students of X Kindergarten face difficulties or problems as follows:
1. The students get difficulties in using words.
2. The students get difficulties in grasping the meaning.
3. The students get difficulties in pronouncing the words .
They can be seen from the result of daily quiz, the mean of their mark is not good (5.5). (It can be seen at the appendix 18 p. 201).
From the result of the pre-test it can be concluded that the students have low ability in learning English, especially mastering vocabulary (understanding meaning, the use of words, and pronunciation). From 20 students, 3 students or (15%) gain good mark and 17 students or (85%). still get bad mark.
Besides, the difficulties come from the students. From the result of interviewing the student, one of the student says that one of her difficulties in learning English is how to pronounce the words. Dalam mengucapkan bahasa Inggris itu agak sulit (NS, 2008:9).
Because English is foreign language, most of the students have difficulties how to pronounce the words. It is caused their mother tounge is Javanese, English is still strange for most of them. Besides, some of them still have difficulties how to pronounce the words because of the function of their tongue. (Javanese: pelo), in other words the difficulties come from the students themselves.
Besides from the students, it is noticed that the difficulties come from the teacher himself. The teacher doesn't use the right method in teaching English, especially vocabulary. The teacher doesn't master any methods, therefore in teaching learning process the teacher uses one method only. The students just study in the classroom without doing something in other room or outside. It makes the students feel bored.
The material of teaching English is limited. In teaching learning process the teacher uses the material from the LKS and internal curriculum. The teacher cannot combine other material or create new material. The activities of students just focus in coloring, drawing, imitating and speaking without playing. The teacher does not give opportunity for the children for playing while they are studying. In this case, the technique of teaching is not appropriate to children's period.
He still has minimum English skill. Therefore, it makes the teaching learning process monotonous and makes the students bored. The teacher seldom uses the media in the classroom. To make the students easier in understanding English, using media is very important, because it will be more interesting for the children. Without using good media the teaching learning process become boring. The English teacher says that: "Saya kurang pede karena kadang belum menguasai betul (masih ragu-ragu) " (SS, 2008: 7).
Besides, the time is limited. In X Kindergarten, the students learn English only 30 minutes every week. It is taught by the teacher with other material such as Aqidah, Akhlaq, Javanese, Arabic, etc. Sometimes the teacher has difficulties in managing the time, because he must teach other material beside English. X Kindergarten is full day school, therefore the students have to study many fields everyday. The English teacher says that: Sekitar 30 menit, tapi terintegrasi dengan materi lain misalnya tema bentuk, warna, Aqidah, akhlaq dsb. (SS, 2008: 1).
To overcome the problems teacher has to find out the appropriate method of teaching English for children. It is hoped the student gets the good result in mastering vocabulary in English. Because of the reason, the researcher would like to provide a suitable method which is expected to help the teachers as educator in improving students' vocabulary.
Using beyond centers and circle time method (BCCT) may certainly be an effective way of teaching English for children. BCCT method is a curriculum theme series that is designed to provide a blend between a development and a didactic approach to working with young children. This theme series will provide teachers with lesson ideas that will allow opportunities to offer direct information while allowing children to experiment and explore materials in order to create their own knowledge. There are a lot of activities in BCCT method and the students can play in some places suitable to their skill and interest while they are learning. They can study English indoor or outdoor. The students have a lot of opportunities to play with their friends while they are on the process of learning. The teaching learning process becomes more interesting for children. They can play in the corners at least one hour, so they can enjoy learning English.
Using BCCT method the teacher has opportunity to create new play or media that is supporting the teaching learning process. Therefore, the teaching learning process become more interesting for the students. The teacher is able to practice English while giving instruction to the students using simple instruction, so they do not feel strange with English, because they use it everyday. It can be done when the students in the circle time or play in the corners.
In BCCT method there are many places for playing, they are called corner or playing place. The corner consist of preparation corner, art corner, building corner, nature corner, drama corner and pray corner. The corners are used for supporting the teaching and learning process. Every student is able to use the corner suitable to his interest. The teacher has to prepare them early, before learning English begins. In BCCT method, there are three kinds of play, those are: (1) role play (micro and macro); (2) building play; (3) sensory motor play.
BCCT is one of method that is suitable to children education, because in BCCT method the students have a lot of time to learn especially English, because there are many places using for teaching learning process and each place can be used for learning English. The students are not bored. The students are able to study by playing. It is suitable to children period, the children like playing. The activities in the corner help learners to forget they are studying, they lose themselves in playing in many places. Learning together in the corner involves the student actively in learning process. The learners don't feel bored, because they can choose a place for playing suitables to their interest and need. It will be easier for the teacher to conduct the students in teaching learning process. Hopefully, they can enjoy learning English by playing in many places. In other words, learning by doing in BCCT method can be used for improving student's competence of vocabulary.
Hopefully, learning English using BCCT method the students will gain a lot of advantages. First, they can study English indoor or outdoor, they can learn English together in the corners, they can learn by playing. Second, the students will be more active in doing activities, such as: answering teacher's question, learning and working together with their friends, making simple experiment, etc. Third, the students don't feel bored. Finally, they can enjoy learning English.
From the explanation above it can be concluded that BCCT is a method that is designed to provide a blend between a development and a didactic approach to working with young children, focused in children-centered in the corners. It is used to support teaching and learning process where students are able to move from a corner to different corner to improve their skill and knowledge.

B. Problem Statements
Based on the background above, the writer in her study formulates the problem being studied as follows :
1. Can the use of beyond centers and circle time method improve students' vocabulary at X Kindergarten?
2. How active is the students in the classroom when the teacher applies BCCT method at X Kindergarten?
3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the implementation of BCCT method in improving the students' English vocabulary at X Kindergarten?

C. Objectives of the Study
General objective: the objective of the study is to overcome the students' problem in mastering vocabulary using learning by doing in beyond centers and circle time method at X Kindergarten. Specific objective: the objective of the study is to gain information about:
1. Describing the improvement of students English vocabulary in the Kindergarten of X after being instructed by using Beyond Center and Circle Time method;
2. To know how active is the students in the classroom when the teacher applies Beyond Centers and Circle Time method at X Kindergarten?
3. To identify the strengths and the weaknesses of the implementation of Beyond Centers and Circle Time method.

D. The Benefit of the Study
The result of the action research is expected to be able to give some advantages for the students, the teacher, the school, and other researchers.
1. For the students
First, it can motivate students to study English. Through BCCT method, they will get an enjoyable situation, they won't feel bored. The students will get a better learning system, they will be able to improve their ability to memorize vocabulary by using beyond centers and circle time method. At last, they can learn English particularly vocabulary easily.
2. For the Teacher
Second, by understanding the result of this study, the teacher can be careful in selecting teaching technique in their class. It is hoped that the result of this study helps teachers to teach vocabulary properly by using BCCT method for kindergarten students. The teachers can improve their ability to make innovation, effective strategies, and scenario of teaching vocabulary. It also enriches teacher's technique to teach vocabulary so that their problems that faced in classroom can be solved.
3. For the School
Third, the school can compare the advantages of BCCT method to other method in learning English. So the school will be more selective in determining the technique of teaching English. Using BCCT method will be used for the school to increase the quality of its out put. Therefore, the school will get good reputation from government or society.
4. For other Researcher
Fourth, for other researcher the result of the research is able to use reference to furthermore research in developing teaching vocabulary. It is hoped that the data can open other researchers' mind in completing vocabulary field research. Therefore, for other research will be got a good result related to teaching vocabulary. The data can use to improve other research, particularly the difficulties in mastering vocabulary.

SKRIPSI PTK THE USE OF REFLECTIVE LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH

(KODE PTK-0046) : SKRIPSI PTK THE USE OF REFLECTIVE LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH (MATA PELAJARAN : BAHASA INGGRIS)




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background of Study
Globalization era has come. The acquisition of foreign language especially English as an international language has become more and more important in facing the globalization. In relation to the importance of English, Indonesian government has determined English as the first foreign language to be learned by the students of Indonesia. It is included in the curriculum as a compulsory subject for Junior and Senior High Schools and also Vocational Schools.
Although English is a compulsory subject, the result has not been satisfactory enough yet. In fact, many students have been graduated from their school with minimum ability in using English. It is caused by some factors. One of them is inappropriate technique used by the students' age, while teachers did not pay attention in the aspect of motivation of the students. Whereas motivation is one of important factors which influence the result of teaching and learning process.
Problem faced by teacher is students are not interested in learning English. The low interest in learning process causes the students' attention to the taught material becomes low. It causes some students get less motivation in learning English. Consequently, their low motivation can cause their unsatisfied result in learning. One of the cases is that students often underestimate their own capacity in learning English, because they think that English is difficult to learn. It means that they are less motivated in learning English. So, they need to be encouraged to have a motivation in learning English.
Another problem also occurs since lack of enjoyable atmosphere in learning English. It seemed that students feel bored with the routine activities conducted by the teacher.
Students' learning motivation should be improved because motivation cannot be separated from teaching learning process and finally it influences the teaching learning itself in this case, achievement. This is supported by Ur (1996:274) that various studies have found that motivation is very strongly related to achievement in language learning. Motivation is essential for teaching and learning process. It is a crucial factor that determines students' willingness to engage in lesson and learning activities and their reason for doing so.
Motivation also becomes the determinant factor that explains the success and the failure of learning. There is a statement that "There can be no doubt that motivation plays a vital part in most students' success or failure as language learners" (Harmer, 1998:4). This statement is supported by Brown's opinion (1994:152) stating that motivation is probably the most frequently used catch all of them for explaining the success and the failure of any complex task. He also claims that someone's success in task due to the fact that he or she is motivated.
The motivated student does not only have high motivation in learning but also have to know his or her own ability. What his or her weakness and strength is. Doing a reflection is the appropriate way to know it.
Reflection has an important role in the teaching and learning activities. Reflection here means that human's activity in recapturing his or her experience, thinking about it, mulling it over and then evaluating it (Boud et al, 1985:19). The reflection process is usually followed by a reflective thinking. Reflective thinking is a critical thinking process that aimed to evaluate what are already done by someone and also to find the strengths and weaknesses. The result can be used as a guidance to develop his or her capacity. To develop the capacity motivation is needed. Someone's motivation makes his or her action possible.
The reflective thinking can be applied in the classroom not only by teacher (reflective teaching) but also by students (reflective learning). Reflective learning means a reflection activity by students to reflect their learning and what they get from learning process. Some functions of reflective learning given by Ellis (in Pinder: 2007): (1) to accept responsibility for their personal growth, (2) to help students see a clear link between the effort they put into their development activity and the benefits they get out of it, (3) to help students see more value in each learning experience, by knowing why they are doing it and what is in it for them, (4) to help students "learn how to learn" and add new skills over time.
In this study, to improve students' motivation in learning English, the writer uses Reflective Learning by the reason that reflective learning is a simple way for students to know themselves deeply. By doing the reflective learning, students will know their understanding, what item or lesson they have understood, and also they know what less understanding after the lesson is. By knowing their own ability, it is expected for the students to have a motivation to improve their ability. They can change their techniques of learning or study to be better than ever, or they can discuss to their English teacher. If they have high motivation in learning, their ability will be improved, and they will get satisfying result of learning process. The students can also write everything to express they feel during the lesson. After doing the reflection, the students will have a reflective thinking. Surely, the reflective thinking will help the students to motivate themselves to reach better understanding.
That's why the writer conducts a research which aims to improve the students' motivation in learning English in SMKN X through reflective learning. This research is conducted under the title: THE USE OF REFLECTIVE LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS' MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH (A Classroom Action Research in the Tenth Grade of SMKN X in XXXX/XXXX Academic Year)".

B. Problems Statement
Based on the background of the study explained before, the writer in formulates the problems as follows:
1. Will reflective learning improve students' motivation in learning English?
2. To what extent does reflective learning become an appropriate way to improve the students' motivation in learning English?

C. The Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to know whether reflective learning can improve the students' motivation in learning English or not. It also aims at give general description about the implementation of reflective learning in the classroom and about the things happening in the class when it is implemented (its effects to the students).

D. Benefits of the Study
The research result is expected to give some benefits for several sides. Firstly, the study will give a clear description about how reflective learning is implemented by both the students and the researcher who plays a role as the teacher in order to improve students' motivation in learning English.
The second benefit, for students, it is expected that the result of this research can give some advantages for the students of Vocational School to have a higher motivation in learning English and to have the appropriate behavioral change during the teaching learning process.
Next, it is also hoped that through this research, the information can be useful for teaching English in Vocational School especially SMKN X as the place where the research is conducted and it is expected that the school is able to improve its quality of teaching learning process.
The last, for Teacher Training and Education Faculty, it is expected that the result of this study can be a medium and provide contribution to explore one of the aspects in teaching English. It is hoped to be one field work that can be used as comparison for the students of Teacher Training and Education Faculty that are doing the same research.

SKRIPSI PTK PENINGKATAN PENGUASAAN KOSAKATA UNTUK MEMAHAMI WACANA BAHASA INGGRIS MELALUI PENGGUNAAN MEDIA PERMAINAN SCRABBLE

(KODE PTK-0045) : SKRIPSI PTK PENINGKATAN PENGUASAAN KOSAKATA UNTUK MEMAHAMI WACANA BAHASA INGGRIS MELALUI PENGGUNAAN MEDIA PERMAINAN SCRABBLE (MATA PELAJARAN : BAHASA INGGRIS)




BAB I
PENDAHULUAN


A. Latar Belakang
Dalam era globalisasi sekarang ini, persaingan untuk mendapatkan kesempatan kerja semakin ketat. Hal ini disebabkan oleh persaingan yang dihadapi oleh para pencari kerja tidak hanya orang-orang senegara saja, akan tetapi mereka juga harus bersaing dengan pencari kerja dari negara atau bangsa lain. Di era global dan pasar bebas di mana antara satu dengan yang lain tanpa batas persaingannya. Untuk itu para tamatan sekolah harus mempunyai daya saing yang tinggi untuk memenangkan persaingan tersebut.
Bahasa memiliki peranan sentral dalam perkembangan intelektual, sosial, dan emosional siswa dan merupakan kunci penentu keberhasilan dalam mempelajari semua bidang studi. Bahasa besar sekali peranannya bagi proses berpikir seseorang. Dalam hal ini bahasa merupakan alat berpikir yang utama. Segala macam pengertian, ide, konsep, pikiran, dan angan-angan kita lahirkan dengan bahasa. Dalam kehidupan berbahasa seseorang. Bahasa juga berfungsi sebagai alat komunikasi. Dalam komunikasi kita tak bisa lepas dari pikiran. Dapat juga dikatakan bahwa bahasa merupakan penyampai sekaligus pembentuk pikiran. Bahasa tidak hanya digunakan untuk mengungkapkan isi hati dan pandangan manusia, melainkan juga menggambarkan cara bagaimana orang itr menafsirkan berbagai kenyataan dan menyusunnya kembali serta mengkomunikasikan kepada orang lain. Kian baik seseorang menguasai bahasanya dan kian banyak bahasa yang dikuasainya dengan baik, maka orang tersebut mempunyai kemampuan berfikir yang tinggi.
Bahasa Inggris merupakan salah satu bahasa yang digunakan secara luas dalam setiap aspek kehidupan seperti ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan, kebudayaan, bisnis dan hiburan.
Ketika kita berkomunikasi tentu ada pihak lain yang terlibat. Dengan perkataan lain, kita sebagai komunikator dan pihak lain sebagai komunikan. Hubungan antara komunikator dan komunikan bisa bersifat mesra atau sebaliknya. Kemesraan komunikasi di antaranya bisa ditentukan oleh kebagusan dan ketepatan pilihan kata atau bahasa yang digunakan. Pilihan kata atau bahasa tentu menyangkut kemampuan pemakaiannya.
Dalam era globalisasi ini bahasa mempunyai peran yang sangat penting, terlebih fungsi bahasa sebagai alat komunikasi. Bahasa Inggris yang sekarang ini sebagai bahasa internasional, sangat penting sekali untuk dikuasai. Bahasa Inggris merupakan salah satu bahasa yang digunakan secara luas dalam setiap aspek kehidupan seperti ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan, bisnis, dan hiburan.
Menyadari kenyataan pentingnya bahasa Inggris dimasa depan, maka pembelajaran bahasa Inggris sedini mungkin harus diterapkan di sekolah-sekolah yang merupan salah satu upaya peningkatan kompetensi individu dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Mengingat ke depan persaingan yang dihadapi dengan bangsa lain maka tamatan suatu sekolah selain harus mempunyai kompetensi produktif juga harus mempunyai kompetensi bahasa Inggris, karena bahasa Inggris merupakan bahasa pengantar yang dipakai secara internasional.
Kenyataan yang ada di dunia kerja, yaitu dunia usaha dan dunia industri, bahwa penggunaan bahasa Inggris bagi tenaga kerja bukan hanya untuk memahami petunjuk, membaca manual ataupun memahami instruksi penggunaan peralatan lainnya, namun lebih pada penggunaan untuk berkomunikasi lisan, dan untuk bisa berkomunikasi secara baik harus menguasai kosakata yang memadai pula.
Sedangkan pelaksanaan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang selama ini di laksanakan masih belum bisa merangsang siswa supaya aktif di dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Pembelajaran lebih banyak melatih siswa untuk melakukan latihan-latihan tertulis dan menghafalkan kata atau tata bahasa Inggris, bahkan ada siswa yang takut ketika ada pelajaran bahasa Inggris karena merasa tidak bisa, ada juga yang menjadi malas karena hanya di suruh membaca dan menterjemahkan, jadi siswa menjadi kurang aktif di dalam pembelajaran. Oleh karena itu seorang pengajar harus bisa memilih metode pembelajaran yang tepat supaya siswa bisa berperan aktif dalam pembelajaran. Untuk mendapatkan hal tersebut, maka perlu strategi pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang mendorong siswa aktif dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yaitu salah satunya dengan media pembelajaran bahasa Inggris.
Media pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang akan lebih lanjut di bicarakan di sini adalalah media permainan yang berupa scrabble, yang di harapkan dengan media tersebut dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris siswa akan lebih tertarik tanpa di bebani rasa takut, dan menjadi lebih aktif dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris terutama pada taraf penguasaan kosakata.

B. Identifikasi Masalah
Ada beberapa faktor yang mungkin menyebabkan terciptanya kondisi siswa kurang aktif saat kegiatan pembelajaran, khususnya bahasa Inggris. Beberapa faktor yang di maksud antara lain: a. Rendahnya minat dan motivasi siswa, b. Metode pembelajaran yang di gunakan kurang menarik, c. Kurang tersedianya alat bantu atau media pembelajaran, d. Paradigma sikap dan perilaku guru terhadap kegiatan pembelajaran yang tidak benar.
Selama ini guru belum bisa menggunakan media secara optimal dalam pembelajaran kosakata bahasa Inggris, sehingga murid kurang begitu antusias dalam menerima materi yang disampaikan oleh guru dan menyebabkan penguasaan kosakata siswa kurang. Hal ini disebabkan karena guru kurang bervariasi dalam menggunakan materi untuk kegiatan belajar. Di samping itu, guru tidak menggunakan media yang optimal sehingga hasil yang dicapai juga kurang memenuhi target yang diharapkan.
Pembelajaran kosakata bahasa Inggris dapat juga diberikan atau disampaikan dengan menggunakan media yang sesuai dengan sasaran. Adapun media yang digunakan, media permainan bahasa berupa scrabble. Berkaitan dengan hal tersebut, penggunaan media scrabble dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan kemampuan penguasaan kosa kata pada siswa.

C. Rumusan Masalah
Masalah yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini adalah seberapa jauh keefektifan media scrabble dalam meningkatkan pengajaran penguasaan kosakata bahasa Inggris siswa.

D. Batasan Masalah
Penggunaan alat atau media dalam berbagai bentuk pada umumnya bermanfaat dalam pembelajaran bahasa secara umum dan dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris pada khususnya. Alat atau media yang canggih dan mahal tidak selalu atau belum tentu lebih efektif, yang lebih adalah bagaimana alat itu dapat memikat dan menarik perhatian para pelajar dan mempertinggi motivasi mereka untuk belajar bahasa Inggris.
Dari berbagai permainan bahasa yang ada, media scrabble merupakan media yang tepat untuk digunakan dalam upaya meningkatkan kemampuan kosakata pada siswa.
Permainan bahasa adalah jenis permainan yang menimbulkan kegembiraan, dan ada ketrampilan bahasa yang terlatih (Soeparno, 1980 : 60). Permainan pada hakikatnya merupakan suatu aktifitas untuk memperoleh suatu ketrampilan tertentu dengan cara yang menggembirakan. Sudah barang tentu jenis dan sifat permainan berbeda-beda sesuai dengan umur, jenis kelamin, bakat, dan minatnya. Dengan jalan permainan itu kita akan memperoleh sesuatu kegembiraan atau kepuasan.
Untuk melatih ketrampilan dalam bidang kebahasaan dalam hal ini adalah kosakata dapat kita lakukan dengan menggunakan berbagai permainan bahasa. Permainan bahasa ini sebenarnya sudah biasa kita pakai dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, akan tetapi pada umumnya hanya dianggap sebagai kegiatan iseng untuk mengisi waktu saja.
Permainan bahasa dapat juga di gunakan sebagai usaha peningkatan kosakata siswa. Dengan menggunakan media permainan scrabble ini diharapkan siswa lebih tergugah dalam menerima pembelajaran dari guru. Disamping itu, media ini dapat juaga digunakan sebagai variasai agar siswa merasa senang dan antusias dalam menerima pembelajaran kosakata. Selain itu, tujuan dari permainan ini adalah untuk membina penguasaan kosakata siswa.
Penggunaan media sangat diperlukan oleh guru maupun siswa. Dengan menggunaan media ini diharapkan materi yang akan diberikan dapat dicerna oleh siswa dengan mudah. Selain itu, media sangat praktis untuk di gunakan oleh guru, sebab guru tidak perlu menjelaskan panjang lebar. Dengan adanya media diharapkan kegiatan belajar-mengajar lebih baik dan sesuai dengan tujuan pembelajaran.

E. Penegasan Istilah
1. Peningkatan adalah proses, perbuatan, cara meningkatkan (KBBI 1997 : 1060).
2. Penguasaan adalah proses, cara, perbuatan menguasai atau mengusahakan. (KBBI 1997 : 533).
3. Kosakata adalah perpendaharaan kata (Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Bahasa 1995 : 527)
4. Memahami adalah mengerti benar, menguasai benar (KBBI 1997 : 714).
5. Wacana adalah bahasa yang terlengkap tertinggi atau terbesar diatas kalimat atau klausa dengan koherensi dan kohesi yang tinggi yang berkesinambungan yang mempunyai awal dan akhir yang nyata dengan cara penyampaian secara lisan atau tertulis. (Tarigan 1987 : 27).
6. Bahasa Inggris adalah mata pelajaran tentang bahasa asing.
7. Penggunaan adalah proses, perbuatan, cara mempergunakan sesuatu, pemakaian. (KBBI 1997 : 328).
8. Media adalah berbagai jenis komponen dalam lingkungan siswa yang dapat merangsang untuk belajar. (Gagne dalam Sadiman et al 1993 : 6).
9. Permainan adalah sesuatu yang digunakan untuk bermain, barang atau sesuatu yang dipermainkan. (KBBI 1995 : 614-615).
10. Scrabble adalah permainan kata yang dapat dimainkan oleh 2, 3, atau 4 orang peserta, dalam waktu tertentu. (download:http//www.gamehouse.com)

F. Tujuan Penelitian.
Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membuktikan bahwa penyajian scrabble sebagai model pembelajaran dapat meningkatkan penguasaan kosakata siswa.

G. Manfaat Penelitian
Dalam penelitian ini penulis berharap hasil tulisan ini bermanfaat antara lain secara:
1. Teoritis
Dapat memberikan masukan yang bermakna bagi pengembangan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris pada umumnya dan pembelajaran kosakata bahasa Inggris pada khususnya.
2. Praktis
Dari segi perencanaan pelajaran, dalam penyusunannya tidak dituntut penuangan seluruh buku paket, pemahaman kosakata bahasa, namun sangat ditentukan oleh daya penerimaan siswa terhadap kosakata. Dengan demikian waktu penyusunan pelajaran untuk siswa lebih dinamis disebabkan para siswa lebih dituntut aktif melakukan penjajakan kosakata dalam menyelesaikan suatu proses belajar dengan model permainan tersebut.

SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS SPEAKING SKILL USING VIDEO

(KODE PTK-0044) : SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS SPEAKING SKILL USING VIDEO (MATA PELAJARAN : BAHASA INGGRIS)




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background of the Study
From the 1999 syllabus of vocational school, it can be seen that the school started to teach their students not only English for specific purpose but also general English. The syllabus is designed to fulfill the needs of the students. Graduating from vocational school, most of the students wish to implement the skill they have learned. They have to meet certain requirements in order to get work. One of the requirements is having sufficient skill in foreign language especially English.
Learning English means learning language components and language skills. Grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling are examples of language components. Meanwhile, language skill covers listening, writing, reading, and speaking. Among the four skills, speaking is often considered as the most difficult skill to be learned by the students. Brown and Yule (1983) state that learning to talk in the foreign language is often considered being one of the most difficult aspects of language learning for the teacher to help the students with. Helping the students develop the speaking skill not merely so that they can pass examination but also for more general use when they want to use the English in the outside world. They may need for further study, work or leisure, so that they will not be among the many people who unable to express his idea in English after having studied it for some years.
The teachers, therefore, are challenged to develop various teaching techniques. The variety of teaching techniques will help learners to get higher motivation to learn English. William and Burden (1997:111) say that motivation is the most powerful influences on learning.
In this research, teaching speaking using video is introduced. Video as an audio visual aids is beneficial for the teacher and students in English Language Teaching. Video can be used as an aid to teach the four skills namely reading, listening, speaking and writing. Rice (1993) says that video has so much to offer.
Furthermore, Heimei (1997) states that students love video because video presentation is interesting, challenging, and stimulating to watch. It also brings how people behave in culture whose language they are learning into the classroom. It enables students to have authentic experience in controlled environment. It is also contextualizing language naturally by showing real life into the classroom.
Based on the phenomenon above, it is necessary to conduct a classroom action research. This research is originated with Kurt Lewin, an American psychologist, who introduced it in educational research in the mid 1940s. Although the research is classified as either quantitative or qualitative research, the method applied in this research is qualitative methods. It allows us to describe what is happening and to understand the effects of some educational intervention.
The principal foundations conducting this research are to solve the identified problem and to understand the effects of some interventions. These two principals are aimed to make improvement and to see change. Mills (2006:6) says that the goals of conducting action research are to gain insight, to develop reflective practice, to effect positive changes in the school environment (and on educational practices in general), and to improve student outcomes and the lives of those involved. That’s why a collaboration classroom action research with a vocational school teacher to improve speaking skill of the second grade students of SMK X is conducted in this research.

B. Identification of the Problem
There are some problems that can be identified dealing with the students speaking skill. They are as follows:
1. How do the students practice the speaking skill?
2. How far do the students develop their speaking skill?
3. Do the techniques in teaching speaking used by the teacher improve students’ speaking skill?
4. Have the teacher tried new technique in teaching speaking in order to improve students speaking skill?
5. Will the students get improvement in speaking if the teacher uses video?

C. Limitation of the Problem
To limit the research, it is necessary to focus the problem discussed in the research. The problems are limited into:
1. The speaking improved in the research covers information routines especially giving justification
2. The videos used are only commercial breaks and a short documentary film
3. Improvement seen from the students’ motivation in speaking activity

D. Formulation of the Problem
The problem of this research can thus be formulated in the two questions bellow:
1. What factors causing the low speaking proficiency of the students?
2. Does and to what extent video improve students’ speaking proficiency?
3. Does and to what extent video increase students’ motivation in speaking class?

E. The Objectives of the Research
The objectives of this research will be the answers to the questions stated in the formulation of the problem. The objectives of this research, therefore, can be stated as follow:
1. To find out factors causing low ability in the speaking class
2. To identify the effectiveness of videos in the speaking class in improving the students’ speaking proficiency
3. To describe the effectiveness of videos in increasing students’ motivation in the speaking class

F. The Benefits of the Research
The result of the research hopefully will be very beneficial for:
1. The students at SMK X
Through video, they are expected to have good development in speaking skill. By having video, they will feel happy to learn English since they are put in an enjoyable situation.
2. The teachers of SMK X
It is expected that the research can give inspiration to the teachers of SMK X to have had efforts in developing various teaching techniques. It also expected that the teacher will conduct the same research with her colleagues to get some improvements in the teaching learning process since being a self-reflective teacher is important for teacher professionalism development.
3. The principal
It is expected that the principal promotes this research to the teachers and facilitate them to do the research. As a place to gain knowledge and education, school having good facilities that support TL process is not enough. There should be effort to teacher professional development. School regulator should provide the effort for the sake of students, teacher, and school committee itself.
4. The other researchers
This study is one of the ways in improving students’ speaking skill. It is expected that the findings will be used as starting points to conduct another research. There are many others techniques to make TL process more effective.

SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH PROJECT WORK

(KODE PTK-0043) : SKRIPSI PTK IMPROVING STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH PROJECT WORK (MATA PELAJARAN : BAHASA INGGRIS)




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background of the Study
In this globalization era, English plays a prominent role in the world, where most people use English as a means of communication. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, English is considered as a foreign language (EFL). It has been introduced to educational institutions which is learnt from Junior High School up to university level as a compulsory subject to learn.
As a developing country, Indonesia has been preoccupied with national development and survivals in a strongly competitive world of science and technology. Therefore, Indonesian government admits the important role of English to accelerate the process of state and nation development. English serves as an international language, consequently many communities in many countries in this world use it in every aspect of human life, such as communication, economics, education, science and technology.
In accordance with the importance of English for communication, the Indonesian government has endeavored to improve the system of education and human resources development in realizing the objectives of national education. One of the efforts is done by implementing the Competency-Based Curriculum in the Vocational High School.
SMKN X is a vocational high school which has applied "SBI" (International Standard School) since the academic year of 2004/2005. UU No.20/2003 about Sisdiknas Section 50 verse (3) stated that "pemerintah dan/atau pemerintah daerah menyelenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu satuan pendidikan pada semua jenjang pendidikan untuk dikembangkan menjadi satuan pendidikan bertaraf international.
In SBI, the teaching material is written in English and the teachers give the material in English too. SBI at vocation high school has a mission to create capable workers either in our country or abroad. The class is equipped with a set of computer for each student, LCD, and network system which is connected to the internet. It has a learning model called e-learning and it is expected to be capable of encouraging students to study by themselves. The SBI system uses English and IT in the teaching-learning activities.
English curriculum for SMK is based on notional and functional syllabus. The instructional materials are chosen from the language use in work setting such as telephoning, making and handling reservation, making report and handling complaint. This is in line with the general objective of the teaching and learning English in SMK namely preparing the students to be ready to enter the job market. (Kurikulum KTSP, 2006:5). There is a requirement for SMK students to acquire communicative competence in English. There are four skills of the English communicative competence and one of the skills is speaking. The students can express the meaning well with the appropriate form, such as, in grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary.
One of the weaknesses which they have in learning English, according to the writer's observation, is speaking ability. Their English speaking ability is still low. The indicators of the problems are as follows: First, the students feel shy to express their ideas in English. Second, the students seem to be in doubt and nervous to speak English; Third, the students do not know how to apply different transactional and interactional expressions in different situations. Fourth, the students are afraid of making mistakes in grammar, pronunciation, and intonation; Fifth, the students are afraid to be laughed at by others and they have no courage to express their own English ability; And finally, they never use English in their daily communication either inside, or, moreover, outside the class because of their limited vocabulary.
The causes of speaking problem can be seen from many factors. They may come from the teachers, the students, and the syllabus. Based on the interview that the writer did to some students and teachers informally the causes are as follows.
Firstly, the teachers tended to teach monotonously. The teachers did not apply various teaching techniques. The teachers usually focus their teaching on the written test which was held in the mid or at the end of the semester, even in the final exam. The teacher felt guilty if the students could not do the test well. There was no special time allocated to evaluate the students' speaking skills at the end of the semester or in the final exam. The teachers seldom used English in teaching English lesson. This causes the teacher tended to ignore teaching speaking communicatively.
Secondly, the application of notional and functional syllabus in SMK English curriculum limits the scope of the English material. The choice of material which is focused on transactional language limits the coverage of the vocabulary and the types of sentence forms. This limitation contributes to the students' difficulty in speaking.
It can be inferred from the SMK curriculum that the teacher is one of the external crucial factors that may develop students' ability, especially in English communication. Of course, he/she is the person who is actually responsible for educating them through the teaching learning process. It means that in transferring knowledge the teacher has also an important role to convey the messages. In diagnosing the learning situation, teachers are required to design the teaching techniques that will make the students easy to follow and understand the lessons given.
Besides, in teaching English, the teacher has to be able to make the students participate in discussing the materials actively, so that they will be able not only to understand what they are learning in the class but also to express their ideas in English orally. The most important thing to carry out in English teaching is that the teacher has to be able to use an appropriate approach, design, and procedures.
There are several approaches which are frequently used by the teacher to teach speaking. According to the researcher, the approach which is appropriate to the characteristics and condition of the students of SMKN X for developing their speaking ability is Project Work. Project Work is a learning experience which aims to provide students with the opportunity to synthesize knowledge from various areas of learning, and critically and creatively apply it to real life situations. This process which enhances students' knowledge and enables them to acquire skills like collaboration, communication and independent learning, prepares them for lifelong learning and the challenges ahead, (http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/programmes/project-work/)
There are many reasons why the writer takes project work to improve the students' speaking ability. First, project work focuses on content learning rather than on specific language targets. Real-world subject matter and topics of interest to students can become central to students. Second, project work is student-centered, though the teacher plays a major role in offering support and guidance throughout the process. Third, project work is cooperative rather than competitive. Students can work on their own, in small groups, or as a class to complete a project, sharing resources, ideas, and expertise along the way. Fourth, project work culminates in an end product (e.g., oral presentation, a poster session, a bulleting board display, a report, or a stage performance) that can be shared with others, giving the project a real purpose. The value of the project, however, lies not only just in the final product but also in the process of working towards the end point. Thus, project work has both a process and product orientation and provides students with opportunities to focus on fluency and accuracy at different project work stages. Finally, project work is potentially motivating, stimulating, empowering, and challenging. It usually results in building students' confidence, self-esteem, and autonomy as well as improving students' language skills, content learning, and cognitive abilities.
The target of this research is the improvement of the students' speaking competence, which is indicated by their speaking score that reaches at least 6.5.
Related to the phenomenon above, in this research the writer would like to conduct a research entitled "Improving Students' Speaking Ability Through Project Work". (An Action Research at the Tenth Grade of Technology Information Students of SMKN X in the academic year of XXXX/XXXX).

B. Problem Formulation
Based on the background of the study, the writer wants to find out whether the use of Project-based Learning in teaching speaking skill can improve the students' English speaking ability. The problem can be formulated as follows:
1. Does the use of project work improve the students' speaking ability?
2. How is the teaching-learning process when project work is applied in the speaking class?
3. What are the strengths and weaknesses in using project work in the classroom practice?

C. The Objectives of the Study
The success of the teaching-learning process in the language classroom depends on the process of interaction between the teacher and the students and among the students. The degree of the interaction in the classroom is influenced by certain factors such as the materials to be taught, the methods of teaching used and the atmosphere of the class that motivates the students to learn. Therefore, the objectives of the study are:
1. To find out whether the use of project work in teaching English improve the students' speaking ability or not.
2. To find out how the teaching-learning process is when project work is applied in the speaking class.
3. To find out the strengths and weaknesses in using project work in the classroom practice.

D. The Benefits of the Study
The result of the study is expected to be able to give benefits to the students, the teachers, the schools and the other researchers.
1. For students
a. The students' English speaking ability increases.
b. The students will not feel bored to join the learning activity.
c. The students are motivated to speak.
d. The students' vocabulary will increase automatically.
2. For teachers
a. The teachers will find a new approach which is appropriate for teaching speaking.
b. The teachers will develop their creativity to improve their teaching-learning process.
c. The teachers will be able to conduct teaching-learning activities appropriately.
3. For school
a. Project work increases students' achievement.
b. Project work develops learning strategies which stimulate students' creativities.
4. For other researchers
a. Project work probably will be used as a reference for those who want to conduct a research in English teaching process, especially in improving the students' speaking ability.
b. Project work can be used as an input in English teaching process.